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René Goupil (May 15, 1608 – September 23, 1642) was a French missionary and one of the first North American martyrs of the Roman Catholic Church.

He was baptized in St-Martin-du-Bois near Angers, France, on May 15. He was a surgeon before entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) at Paris on March 16, 1639.[1] He had to leave the novitiate because of illness.[1]

In 1640, he arrived in New France (now Canada) as a lay missionary.[1] From 1640 to 1642, he was at the Saint-Joseph de Sillery mission, near Quebec.[1]

In 1642, he travelled to the Huron missions with about forty other persons, including several Huron chiefs and Jesuit Father Isaac Jogues.[1] They were captured by the Iroquois, taken to Iroquois territory at Ossernenon (Auriesville, New York), and tortured. After teaching the native children the sign of the cross, Goupil was killed Septermber 29, 1642, by a spear throw to the head.[1] Before being killed, he had taken his religious vows as a Jesuit brother before Fr. Isaac Jogues.[1] He is venerated as the first Jesuit martyr in Canada and one of three United States martyrs.

He was canonized on June 29, 1930 by Pope Pius XI along with seven other Canadian Martyrs (also known as the "North American Martyrs"). He is the patron saint of anesthetists.

At Fordham University's Rose Hill Campus in the Bronx, New York, a freshman dormitory—Martyrs' Court—has three sections, which are named for the three U.S. martyr-saints: René Goupil, Isaac Jogues, and John LaLande.[2]